One recent morning, while exchanging snarky comments (I do it, I admit I do it, and if one were to judge the replies I receive… I’m rather good at it) about Russian disinformation; part of what during Soviet times was termed “Active Measures” (активные мероприятия) and overseen by the forefather of the Russian Federation’s current Foreign Intelligence Service, the SVR (Sluzhba Vneshney Razvedki), the KGB, or Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti (State State Security of the USSR) with a guy from the Hudson Institute . The thread had been initiated by a pro-Kremlin internet ‘Troll’  which lead us to the subject of Russian disinformation/propaganda outlets. There are obvious ones like Pravda , RT (formerly Russia Today) , and Sputnik  but there are others which are less well-known such as Russia Behind The Headlines , Russia Insider  and Global Research ; founded by Michel Chossudovsky, “son of a Russian … émigré, the career United Nations diplomat and academic Evgeny Chossudovsky” , Infowars , and Veterans Today ; about which Senior Editor Gordon Duff admits (at the 1:10:58 mark in the audio recording):
“[a]bout 30% of what’s written on Veterans Today, is patently false … 40% of what I write, is at least purposely, partially false” 
with Alex Jones of Infowars and Gordon Duff of Veterans Today having both appeared on RT countless times.   Still, there are still others which while they don’t have definitive links to Russia, are nevertheless favored by Russian Trolls such Consortium News , Counterpunch , Signs Of The Times , Washington’s Blog , Zero Hedge , and the apparently now defunct Christ The Morning Star   
Loyalty Over Ethnicity
Just as there are different types of Troll, not all “Russian Trolls”       are actually Russian. Here’s an example of one from Serbia (though other Serbians seem to question whether she actually is) admitting that not only, is she a Troll, she is acting as one “for free” (her reference to being a bigot occurred after she not only condoned Russians beating homosexuals to death, but said she would do the same).
The Russians, like the Soviets before them, are very adept at finding and harnessing existing animosity then exploiting it for their own purposes. In the above example, Jovana who amongst my Connections is referred to as Trollvana (Troll+Jovana), is obsessed with U.S. & North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) military involvement in the Balkans during the 1990s even though nations which comprised the former Yugoslavia are now NATO members or have Membership Action Plans  with Slovenia and Croatia being the former, Montenegro having been recently offered accession subject to ratification by existing members , while Macedonia & Bosnia and Herzegovina, the latter. Serbia too, despite its historically close ties to Moscow has agreed to extend “freedom of movement and immunity to NATO troops.” 
Another example of long-simmering animus exploited by the Russia Federation is that between Greece and historic rival Turkey. On LinkedIn, it has manifested itself in a Battalion of Greek Trolls within the larger Army of Russian Trolls, spreading anti-Turkishagitprop . While I don’t have exact figures on the number of Greek users of the site actively engaged in such behavior, one of the most pervasive is a former Greek actress living in the United Kingdom who, along with an unpublished Greek “author” and a seemingly uncredited Greek “architect” appear to work as Part-Time (or volunteer) propagandists for the Kremlin.
In addition to their unapologetic pro-Putin leanings, these three women have demonstrated significant anti-Western bias, are unabashedly against the NATO despite the glaring fact Greece is a member  and like Turkey, has been since 1952 . Further, in addition to being anti-Semitic Orthodox Christian bigots (any criticism of their anti-Semitic posts or comments is immediately met with allegations the person ‘hates Orthodox Christians’ or assumptions that person isn’t themselves a Christian) and not surprisingly seem to support the far-right political party, Golden Dawn.  Because of their frequent verbatim quoting of each other’s posts (I don’t mean sharing via LinkedIn, I mean actual copying of full blocks of text which on occasion have included the exact same typos), several of my connections and I believe the latter two of these individuals are actually fake profiles created by the former to spread disinformation and propaganda on behalf of Russia and refer to them as “the Greek Trollfecta” (Troll+Trifecta). They along with a Greek “Admiral” who not only alleges to be a 3rd Generation American; as-yet unverifiably asserts he spent the majority of his career at the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (not only as part of the Hellenic delegation but also in Senior leadership positions); declares he was the “Architect of the Global Security” at the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens; claims a PhD. from a sketchy Swiss diploma mill; and professes to have been “therewhen they crucified [Jesus]!”
Separating Disinformation from Actual News
Days after Turkey shot down a Russian Su-24     in late November 2015, I noticed several people, not least of which was the “Admiral,” posting an article about Turkey closing the Dardanelles Straits, one of two which along with the Bosphorus Straits make-up the “the Turkish Straits” and including the Sea of Marmara between them separate the Aegian and Black Seas. Given stories were already appearing in Russian state-owned media sources like Sputnik, “the Buzzfeed of Propaganda”   in the months preceding Russia’s military intervention in the Syrian Civil War   thereby creating a legend, I shouldn’t have been surprised.
The source of this “story”–my word choice being intentional–a New York City radio station’s news page.  At the time I wasn’t familiar with “Superstation95” but was more interested in trying to find the origin of the story not realizing that later 95.1 wouldbecome one of its own.
A reverse search of the first image returned 25 results  of which nine featured URLs which ended in .ru, one was Greek, and one specifically mentions the word “conspiracy”. Meanwhile, there were 48 for the second including 15 which were in Cyrillic, five in Greek, and one in Farsi.  The most interesting of these latter results I thought, was a website calling itself Line of Defense (ЛИНИЯ ОБОРОНЫ) .
Countering Russian Disinformation or Creating it?
According to Line of Defense’s “About Us” page , the “resource” was “created” to “confront the monstrous propaganda machine of the Russian Federation, which sculpts a parallel reality and deprives viewers and readers and critical thinking at all – the desire to think for themselves” while also claiming to ” put the interests of Ukraine in the forefront.” It goes onto state:
“In order to avoid unnecessary explanations, we … [present] the author’s point of view, based on open sources of information. We deliberately avoid the publication of these sources and to minimize the designation of specific numbers and names.”
Unfortunately, what it also doesn’t do is identify the original “sources” of said Russian disinformation which in addition to some red flags about the site including: it having a top-level domain “.org” despite it not appearing to be an Organization of any sort; its Registrant, Admin and Tech Contact information being represented by a Domain Proxy ; the name of the site being shown as “Line of Defense” while the URL utilizes the non-American spelling of the word (Defense vs. Defence), leads me to question whether it is actually countering Russian propaganda or creating it–intentionally or unintentionally.
I Reject Your Reality and Substitute My Own!
Much like the line from the low-budget Sci-Fi movie The Dungeonmaster made famous by Adam Savage of Mythbusters fame…
Disinformation and propaganda often requires one to suspend common sense and refuse to apply logic to a given story or claim and the propaganda itself can range from mere perceptional disinformation to absolute fiction. Nevertheless, there will be people who no matter how sensational the assertion, ready to not only believe it but to further it in cyber space. Not surprisingly, before long, the story was soon spreading like wildfire across the internet in general and LinkedIn in particular,
notwithstanding the obvious fact “transit and navigation” through the Dardanelles and BosphorusStraits collectively called “the Turkish Straits” are covered by the 1936 Montreux Convention.  The relevant parts of the the agreement stating the following:
“Article 2. In time of peace, merchant vessels shall enjoy complete freedom of transit and navigation in the Straits, by day and by night, under any flag and with any kind of cargo, without any formalities, except as provided in Article 3 …
Article 4. In time of war, Turkey not being belligerent, merchant vessels,In time of war, Turkey not being belligerent, merchant vessels, under any flag or with any kind of cargo, shall enjoy freedom of transit and navigation in the Straits subject to the provisions of Articles 2 and 3. …
Article 5. In time of war, Turkey being belligerent, merchant vessels not belonging to a country at war with Turkey shall enjoy freedom of transit and navigation in the Straits on condition that they do not in any way assist the enemy. Such vessels shall enter the Straits by day and their transit shall be effected by the route which shall in each case be indicated by the Turkish authorities.
Article 6. Should Turkey consider herself to be threatened with imminent danger of war, the provisions of Article 2 shall nevertheless continue to be applied except that vessels must enter the Straits by day and their transit must be effected by the route which shall, in each case be indicated by the Turkish authorities”
Such claims also ignoring Turkey’s Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu reaffirming publicly in 2008:
“the Montreux Convention is important to maintain stability around the Black Sea and vital for the security of Istanbul and the Bosphorus.” 
Not to mention allegations Turkey has turned a blind eye to allegations that Russia has been using “individuals and logistics companies—referred to herein as the ‘Odessa Network’”–not to be confused with the 1972 Frederick Forsyth novel, The Odessa File later made into a movie staring Jon Voight and Maximilian Schell–to “transport weapons to the Assad regime in Syria, among other notorious violators of human rights” with “Odessa Network company leaders hav[ing] personal and financial relationships with cabinet level officials in the Russian and Ukrainian governments, including a personal advisor to Putin and senior Russian military industrial figures.”  
The Assumed Admiral & Argumentum ad Verecundiam
Given one of the people furthering the claims of the Dardanelles Straits being closed in violation of the Montreux Convention purports to be a retired “Admiral” who claims to have served for years with NATO (though this may come as a surprise to the Organization), it would be very easy for any unsuspecting person to fall victim to ‘argumentum ad verecundiam,’ a form of logical fallacy referring to an argument designed to appeal to authority.
Example: He was an Admiral and worked at NATO ergo, what he says about Turkey closing the Straits must be true!
Thankfully, as I have been suspicious of “the Admiral” for some time, and acutely aware of ongoing anti-Turkish disinformation efforts, I didn’t have to worry about falling victim to his argument. Of course, my refuting the claim promptly didn’t stop others from succumbing to it.
The Propaganda Boomerang
When it comes to disinformation, it’s not uncommon to see attempts to recycle propaganda in the future which was either effective or incendiary in the past. Personally, I think this concept should be referred to as a ‘propaganda boomerang.’
A mere three months after the “Line of Defense” Dardanelles tale, it was the Bosphorus’ turn in the limelight. This time, the Strait in question was different but the purveyor of this particular piece of propaganda was exactly the same, Super Station 95. 
At least this time around, there was an actual source listed, “NICK CHEILADAKIS [sic].”  According to his website’s bio which oddly abruptly ends , “for almost 30 years” Mr. Hiladakis “has been a correspondent in Turkey for many years and has written numerous articles in well-known newspapers and magazines” on Greco-Turkish issues. While there is a references “Turkish Balkan Studies,” there isn’t one about his being published in Serbian  or articles published in Russian.    I can imagine why Mr. Hilakakis is willing to spread anti-Turkish disinformation and propaganda but given the number of articles which are being published by him in Russian does make me wonder whether or not he’s a paid agent of influence?
Propaganda and Pirate Radio
Having twice encountered propaganda aimed at swaying public sentiment against Turkey and towards Russia, published online by Superstation 95, I was curious to find-out more about it. I started my research by asking my wife about Superstation95. She’s an employee of a subsidiary of the single largest owner of radio stations in the United States and at the time I met her, while I was on assignment there, was living in the New York City area.
While Superstation95 purports itself to be a radio station operating on 95.1 Megahertz on the FM Broadcast Band  in New York City as evidenced by their profile picture on Twitter ,
the closest listings my wife could confirm were the following listed by distance in kilometers from Superstation95’s alleged location in the Fort Greene neighborhood in the New York City borough of Brooklyn:
To put it in perspective, here is a radius map of the above stations in relation to New York City …
On February 12, 2016, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) served “83-40 BRITTON AVENUE, LLC” a 7-story brick apartment building in a residential neighborhood the Flushing area of Queens, New York  with a “NOTICE OF UNLICENSED OPERATION”  re a “broadcast radio station on 95.1 MHz.” In all likelihood, the notice corresponds to Hype Radio  given it was operating on that frequency and in the borough of Queens.
Under the heading, Penalties for Operation Without A Permit or License , the FCC states:
The Commission considers unauthorized broadcast operation to be a serious matter. Presently, the maximum penalty for operating an unlicensed or “pirate” broadcast station (one which is not permitted under Part 15 [of FCC’s Rules] or is not a Carrier Current Station) is set at $10,000 for a single violation or a single day of operation, up to a total maximum amount of $75,000.
Adjustments may be made upwards or downwards depending on the circumstances involved. Equipment used for an unauthorized operation may also be confiscated. There are also criminal penalties (fine and/or imprisonment) for “willfully and knowingly” operating a radio station without a license.
One can compare the site of Superstation95 (note the URL, THIS is the homepage)
to that of a legitimate radio station such as Rochester, NY’s  WAIO.
Not to mention of course that one can, pardon the bad pun, “Tune-in”  from anywhere in the world using the iHeartRadio app   or at http://www.iheart.com/
The Man Behind the Non-existent Station on the FM Dial
Kim LaCapria writing at the ‘urban legends’ website, Snopes.com  describes “Superstation95 [as] an online presence that is neither a ‘superstation’ nor a legitimate news source, but rather a repository of misinformation”. She goes on to state “[b]eginning in late 2015, Turner’s Superstation95 began spreading alarmist hoaxes and conspiracy theories on social media, frequently building upon legitimate tragic or frightening events with falsified details. … The site’s claims [span] many conspiracy themes, but remain[s] cohesive in [its] consistent lack of credibility, accuracy, or respect for the victims of tragedies. As with prior topical yet fabricated information from the site, Superstation95 use[s] … actual event[s] to add untruths that seemed to have been written for the sole purpose of gaining page views.”
According to Ms. LaCapria, the owner of the site is Hal Turner  , “a white supremacist who was sentenced in 2010 to 33 months in prison
for making death threats against three federal judges”  following their ruling upholding handgun bans in Chicago and a suburb.    The type of person who, ironically enough could be a character in The Turner Diaries.  
At one point, according to her, “[t]he individual listed on the site’s ‘Contact‘ page is Turner’s criminal lawyer”; however, the page now returns a “404” error. 
Using web indexing cached by the ‘Wayback Machine’  I was able to confirm Ms. LaCapria claims of a relationship between Turner and Superstation95
As well as verify that the address previously listed  …
was that of his attorney, Ronald G. Russo, Esq.   
Under the heading “About,” Superstation95’s website features a link entitled “FCC License info for 95.1 FM” The Application Search Details  list the license applicant as “BRIDGELIGHT, LLC”, with the “Community of the License” as I mentioned previously, shown as “FORT GREENE, NY”, a neighborhood Brooklyn. The application status is shown as “GRANTED” on “11/08/2013” for an “ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION PERMIT”.
Bridgelight, LLC while NOT an entity registered with the New York Department of State, Division of Corporations, even as a foreign entity (one incorporated outside of New York ),
it is legitimately one across the Hudson River in New Jersey according to the New Jersey Division of Revenue and Enterprise Services.
A search for Bridgelight, LLC. returns results   indicating it is the owner of a radio station in Freehold Township, New Jersey, “WRDR (89.7 FM)”  “branded as Bridge FM” which “broadcasts a wide variety of programming including Contemporary Rhythmic Praise and Worship Music, preaching and teaching, brief Christian features, instructional Christian programming, Church services, and Children’s programs.”
In addition to 89.7 FM, the station’s website advertises that it is also broadcasting on additional frequencies: “91.9 FM – Parlin, NJ; 103.1 FM – Fort Lee, NJ; 99.7 FM – Monticello, NY’ and 106.9 FM – Poughkeepsie, NY”
Does New York Putin’s Lies?
After his arrest in 2009, it was revealed Turner “worked as an informant for the FBI between 2003 and 2007”    apparently going by the code name “Valhalla”. Despite the public outrage, he’s remained an unrepentant racist
and such sentiment ignores the fact that he is just one of a long line of such individuals who have acted as informants. 
It would be easy to suppose this is the reason Turner appears to have disassociated himself from the website which now utilizes a Domain proxy to protect the site’s Registrant, Admin and Tech Contacts (interestingly enough, despite the availability of such service providers in the United States, the site is using one in Queensland, Australia. ). However, the domain “superstation95.com” was not registered until April 17, 2015.  Still, it’s presumably easier to spread conspiracy theories, disinformation, hoaxes and propaganda if the site isn’t easily associated with a felonious white supremacist snitch. Further, such topics harken back to the old KGB “Department of Agitation and Propaganda (Agitprop)” intended to coordinate and disseminate “foreign propaganda”. 
Can I definitively tie Hal Turner and Superstation95 to the Kremlin ongoing propaganda machine? No. That said given you’ve probably read Russia propaganda today ; Putin’s attempts to influence European affairs by financing political parties    ; Russia serving as something of a nation-state conference center for all things Far-Right  ; “American Neo-Nazis” being found on the Russian equivalent of Facebook, VKontakte (or VK for short) ; as well a link between the Charleston, South Carolina shooter, Dylann Roof  and the “International Russian Conservative Forums,” , the appropriate U.S. Government would likely have sufficient circumstantial evidence to begin making official inquiries.
 Macdonald, A. (1978). The Turner Diaries. Arlington, VA: National Vauguard Books.
 Shultz, R. and Godson, R. (1984). Dezinformatsia. Washington, D.C.: Pergamon Brassy.